They are fly larvae that with one exception live in wet or moist areas. Posterior spiracles on elevated projections Sepsidae, 53. Many species live in soil feeding on seeds or roots or in decaying wood. More detailed assistance can be gained by accessing the LUCID player help files. Slits of posterior spiracles strongly sinuous; inner surface of anal plate covered with small spines; anal plate surrounded by small spines Musca domestica(Muscidae), 8 '. instar larvae, and early instars of many species may be impossible to identify. Midle portion of body enlarged with strong spinous girdles 31, 31. Most of the characters discussed in the fact sheets and used in the keys are based on late or last Cerci long without compound eyes 11, 11. make color or pattern characters useless. 0.5 mm lateral view Fig.
Screwworm flies as agents of wound myiasis, > Identification key to species of myiasis-causing fly larvae, The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London. WCB, USA, p 346, Carvalho LML, Thyssen PJ, Linhares AX, Palhares FB (2000) A checklist of arthropods associated with carrion and human corpses in southeastern Brazil. With thoracic gills; two tarsal claws Plecoptera, 16. A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. Head incomplete; thorax and abdomen combined consist of 13 segments; fleshy, pointed paired prolegs on 7 or more abdominal segments; usually with a sclerotized plate on ventral surface of mesothorax Cecidomyiidae, 3' .
Projecting portion of head and flattened apical plate of terminal abdominal segment heavily sclerotized, the former cone-shaped, entirely closed except at extreme apex and not retractile; the apical plate obliquely truncate and with projecting processes Xilophagidae, 20 . The interval between molts is known as stadium, and the form assumed by an insect during a particular stadium is termed an instar (e.g., when an insect hatches from the egg, it is said to be in its first instar) (Fig. Start- The first decision along the identification path is whether or not the larva has segmented thoracic legs.
2.1): Micropyle: a pore at the anterior end of the egg that permits entrance of the spermatozoa; Plastron: a cell membrane inside and next to the chorion and surrounding the cytoplasm; Hatching line: a longitudinal strip that splits off to let the larva emerge. 12 Rat-tailed maggots have long distinct tails that are extensible breathing tubes which allow them tolive in very stagnant water. Identifiers unfamiliar with Lepidoptera larvae should consult Stehr (1987) or Peterson (1948) for an overview of larval
Mature third instar non-pigmented and with accessory dental sclerite 20, 20. Anterior spiracles (when present - generally appear from the second instar) are located on each side of the prothoracic segment and protrude from the body wall. Identification key to species of myiasis-causing fly larvae.
), Current Concepts in Forensic Entomology, 25, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-9684-6_2, Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2010. NOTE: Due to the continuing spread of H. armigera in South America, exercise caution when attempting identifications of Helicoverpa from that continent. They live in moist, decayingorganic matter, especially accumulations of fallen leaves or dead grass. These are highly specialized larvae; most live in water, soil, wood, or in decaying organic matter. Life cycle drawings are from:Virginia Tech - Department of EntomologyUniversity of New Mexico - Entomology. Scavengers; body with spiny or setiferous processes 43, 43. With accessory dental sclerite Compsomyiops spp. Penultimate abdominal segment longer than ultimate, with a deep transverse depression near its apex giving it the appearance of two distinct segments; ultimate segment terminating in a sharp ridge with a median sharp point, on either side, of which dorsally and ventrally four very closely approximated hairs are situated Mydidae, 26 .
Surface of the body segments with obvious fleshy or spinous processes 3, 2 ' . (Calliphoridae), 17 '. Examples are a) lacewing, b) lady beetle, and c) ground beetle. There is a single fleshy leg at the front and back of the body.
Many flies have this larval type including blow flies, house flies, and fruit flies. 11 Crane fly larvae often have fleshy lobes at end of their abdomens. sclerite acessory oral sclerite anal plate inner dorsal tubercle median dorsal tubercle outer dorsal tubercle outer ventraltubercle median ventral tubercle outer ventral tubercle. Posterior spiracles situated on the antepenultimate segment; abdominal segments 1-6 subdivided, the body apparently consisting of 20 segments exclusive of the head 25, 24 . Body not distinctly sclerotized; no wing pads Diplura, 12'. Inner dorsal tubercles of the posterior region separated from each other by a distance approximately equal to the distance between the inner and outer dorsal tubercles; strong patch of spines present dorsal to anus Lucilia cuprina(Calliphoridae), 13.
Parasitic on birds and some mammals; one tarsal claw Mallophaga, 7.
Seven or eight abdominal tracheal gills; one tarsal claw Ephemeroptera, 15'. Rootworm larvae (c) live in the soil and feed on plant roots.
Wireworms (b) have hard, cylindrical, bodies.
Predaceous or phytophagous; body with transverse plicae Syrphidae, 41. dorsal apodeme ventral cornu dental intermediate sclerite. Larvae with a row of spiracles on each side of body (peripneustic), or with at least rudimentary abdominal spiracles 8, 7'. It is also possible for pieces to break off specimens The key was constructed with the LUCID 3.4 key-building software (fromLucidcentral) and is being run using a Java applet. All of the larvae illustrated in the fact sheets are preserved, so these specimens may appear Other authors (e.g., Ahola and Silvonen 2005, ; Beck 1999-2000; Passoa 1985) have illustrated mandibles and/or Slits of posterior spiracles straight or at most arcuate 9, 9. Apical abdominal segment without projecting processes, spiracles very small; first instar with distinct segments and two long apical bristles on abdomen; parasites of spiders Acroceridae, 23'.
The puparium of the Muscomorpha is most commonly barrel-shaped, heavily scle-rotized (formed by hardening of the third instar larval cuticle), with the morphology similar to the previous instar, but smaller in length due to a retraction in the body segments (Fig. Saprophagous; body segments with processes Phoridae, 39 . Posterior spiracles rather widely separated, visible, situated on apical segment, which may be truncated, sclerotized, or armed with apical processes; or spiracles on second to last (penultimate) or third to last (antepenultimate) segment; body surface not roughened or visibly striated 19, 18. Digital Media Library, Images: University of Kentucky Entomology, except where indicated, Picture Key to Larval Insect Types: Section 1 (, Picture Key to Larval Insect Types: Section 2 (, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment. Soft, white bodied forms, like the white grub and rootworm, live in protected places while leaf feeders and scavengers tend to have harder, more protected bodies. 16 '. They feed exposed on foliage. 2.2 Development of a generalized larvae, 2.5 mm head abdominal segments thoracic segments.
Of course,ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS FOR SAFE USE OF ANY PESTICIDE! Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95(1):135-138, Carvalho LML, Thyssen PJ, Goff ML, Linhares AX (2004) Observations on the succession patterns of necrophagous insects onto a pig carcass in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil. Larvae with an obvious head that is sclerotized and clearly differentiated from the rest of the body; body flattened; mouthhook moving vertically, parallel to each other like a pair of hooks Hermetia illucens(Stratiomyiidae), 1' . 6- Midge larvae occur in water or moist organic litter.
Posterior spiracles are found on the last abdominal segment; and in each spiracle there is a number of slits (according to larval stage) surrounded by a structure called a peritreme. There are no morphological
15 Fly maggots have no head and a cream to white body that is distinctly tapered at head and blunt at the rear.
Thoracic segments fused, flattened, and wider than abdominal segments, forming a complex mass Culicidae, 6 ' .
Posterior spiracles not on two short processes Piophilidae, 46.
Extension / J Med Entomol 36:638-641 Zumpt F (1965) Myiasis in man and animals in the old world. Projecting portion of head more or less retractile, not cone-shaped, the movable portion not enclosed; apical abdominal segment without a heavily sclerotized flattened terminal plate 21, 21. Upload the Java applet and run the LUCID identification key (this will take you out of the NHM website). During growth the number of molts varies among insect groups, but in some insect orders this number is rather constant (e.g., two in the muscomorph diptera). Spine pattern follows the described above;peritremeis strongly sclerotized; a littledistinguished button; anal plate is short Hemilucilia segmentaria(Calliphoridae), 17. CAUTION! Departments & Units /
Posterior spiracles on a prolongation of posterior segment; 6-8 pairs of prolegs, but ventral prolegs absent Ephydridae, 37. If it does, you stay on the first section of the key. The interactive multi-access design of the identification key allows you to select which characters to examine and in which order to examine them. Inner dorsal tubercles of the posterior region separated from each other by a distance approximately equal to the distance between the inner and median dorsal tubercles; very few spines present dorsal to anus Lucilia sencata(Calliphoridae), 12 '. No prolegs on abdominal segments, with possible exception on posterior segment 12, 12. Decomposition of a dead body starts through the action of bacteria and fungi, followed by the action of a series of arthropods with a predominance of the dipteran insects (e.g., Carvalho et al. The term myiasis was first proposed by Hope (1840) to refer to diseases of humans originating specifically with dipterous larvae, as opposed to those caused by insect larvae in general, scholechiasis (Kirby and Spence, 1815). Posterior spiracles conspicuous, deeply pigmented 51, 50. Identification of either of these species from a region where they are not endemic is a serious matter and you should have your identification confirmed by an expert on this group of insects. Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Prins AJ (1982) Morphological and biological notes on six South African blow-flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae) and their immature stages. Proboscis arising from hind margin of head Homoptera, 22. One pair of prolegs on each of first and second abdominal segments; body U-shaped when at rest Dixidae, 11'. Antennae long, longer than body Psocoptera, 8. (eds. The underside usually is flat while the upper side is rounded, giving them a humpbacked appearance. Mandibles move horizontally;head completeor, ifnot, the posterior portion with deep longitudinal incisions, or the thorax and abdomen together consisting of 13 segments (Suborder Nematocera) 3, 1'. Slits of posterior spiracles almost parallels; anterior spiracles with 10 lobes; anal segment with ventral lobes much longer than the dorsal lobes Piophila casei(Piophilidae), 10. They may be found in stored products or natural fibers, such as cotton or wool. the hypopharyngeal complex for a large number of species. 859-257-4772, Students / They live in standing,stagnant water, and especially seldom used drains. Maxillae poorly developed, palpi visible only in a few larvae; mandibles short and hook-like; antennae poorly developed or absent, when present situated upon a membranous surface (Suborder Brachycera, old Suborder Cyclorrhapha) 28, 3. (9) Labial palpi 2-segmented; if gills present, on the sides of the abdomen 24 17'. instars and in the same instar.
The distinct head is completely hidden within the thorax. Hairy carpet beetle larva (e) are scavengers that feed on plant and animal products. An Soc Entomol Brasil 16:265-288 Smith KGV (1986) A manual of forensic entomology. The most recent classification recognizes two suborders, Nematocera and Brachycera (the latter suborder include dipterans that are known as Cyclorrhapha - for classification consult McAlpine et al. Posterior spiracles not enclosed in a deep cavity 7, 7. Posterior spiracles on two short processes Drosophilidae, 45 '. Two or more small ocelli on each side of head 28, 28. Cerci minute; social insects Isoptera, 10 Cerci short; with compound eyes Orthoptera, 10'. morphology and study techniques. Slits of posterior spiracles short and radial Anthomyiidae, 54. They are good crawlers and resemble small caterpillars but lack a distinct head and legs of any sort. Lateral fusiform areas present; with or without accessory dental sclerite 17, 16. With or without accessory dental sclerite 18, 18.
Japanese J San Zool 18:48-100, Liu D, Greenberg B (1989) Immature stages of some flies of forensic importance. Prolegs not distinct; posterior spiracles in a cavity (see also 54), 36.
Spine pattern on anal protuberance convex or bell-shaped; mouthhook devoid of accessory oral sclerite; anterior spiracleswith 10-12 branches Chrysomya puioria(Calliphoridae), 18 '. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.
These predators are active crawlers that hunt prey. 2.5 mm head pharyngeal sclerite dorsal cornu. Apical abdominal segment not as described above; paired abdominal pseudopods usually absent; other abdominal appendages always absent 22, 22. 2.4 Puparium of a calliphorid. Both the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF) Chrysomya bezziana and the New World screwworm fly (NWSF) Cochliomyia hominovorax are major economic pests. and shape of the dorsal abdominal setae, texture of the body integument, and the spacing of the metathoracic setae" (he found no difference between
When examining pinacula and setal number, be Please consult the Larval Morphology page for terminology related to these structures. The end point will be a drawing of one of the common larval types that should resemble your specimen. Less than 13 segments; other characters differ 4, 4. Abdomen at least 9-segmented, no spring-like structure 4, 6. Two appendages on the end of the abdomen 12, 12. Each of the pictures represents a larval type.
Biol Res 40:271-280 Wells JD, Byrd JH, Tantawi TI (1999) Key to third-instar Chrysomyinae (Diptera: Calliphoridae), from carrion in the continental United States.
Usually, they have a relatively flat heads and prominent forward-pointing jaws. Collaborating Centre on Myiasis-Causing Insects and Their Identification for the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United NationsDivision of Parasites and Vectors,Department of Life sciences,Natural History Museum,Cromwell Road,London,SW7 5BD,UK. Characters of the mandibles and hypopharyngeal complex can be quite useful in separating closely related species. The dark head is withdrawn into the thorax but part of it usually is visible. Peritreme of posterior spiracle incomplete and not enclosing button, or it is sometimes indistinct 13, 8.
If it does not, then go to the second page. Nymphs generally look much like their adult stage except for being smaller and lacking wings, if the species has winged adults. Posterior spiracles at the apices of a pair of long stalk-like processes Scatopsidae, 10'. The descriptions below apply to dipterans of the suborder Brachycera and the infraorder Muscomorpha. Posterior dorsal extension of head not spatulate at apex; ventral posterior projections absent Scenopinidae, 26. The immature stage consists of the egg, nymph or larva with its average of three or four development instars, and the pupa. Leaf beetle larvae (d), like that of the Colorado potato beetle, resemble caterpillars without fleshy abdominal legs. They are the immature stages of varies species of gnats.
1. Antennae usually short and inconspicuous, sometimes apparently absent; body without conspicuous bristles 11, 10. 7- Mosquito larvae (wiggler) are very distinctive.
on this website. Wing pads usually external, nymphs or naiads 2, 1'. The study of immature insects is important in forensic entomology, because the identification of the involved species is a crucial step in calculating the post-mortem interval (PMI) and because it is the insect life stage most frequently collected from corpses. 2.5a, b and e). Posterior spiracles situated on apical segment 20, 19 '. Mouthhook with small accessory oral sclerite and comma-shaped; peritremes of the posterior spiracles separated one from the other by a distance equal to approximately one-third to one-half the diameter of one of the peritremes; anterior spiracles with 8-10 short branches Chrysomya megacephala(Calliphoridae), Chu HF, Cutkomp LK (1992) How to know the immature insects.